Many studies have found babies benefit from skin to skin contact with their mothers and fathers after giving birth. Skin to skin, often called kangaroo care, is when babies are held naked against their mother’s skin for a minimum of 1 to 2 hours after birth. Midwives would argue skin to skin contact is beneficial several hours a day for a least 2 weeks. There are many reasons to implement kangaroo care. Immediate skin to skin after birth eases baby’s transition from uterine life ensuring temperature, breathing, and heart rate stabilization. While mothers benefit from this practice by keeping the uterus firm which can decrease bleeding. Skin to skin also increases breastfeeding success and decreases postpartum depression. Studies suggest that benefits for babies can persist for years. Skin to skin improves maternal attachment behavior, reduced maternal anxiety, enhances child cognitive development and increases successful breastfeeding. Babies tend to cry less, leading to less parental stress and anxiety. When the baby passes through the birth canal, the baby’s gut is colonized with bacteria from the mother’s vaginal. Skin to skin continues to expose the baby to the mother’s bacteria and microbes. This early exposure helps babies develop their own healthy bacteria. Exposure to microbes is associated with protection inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. Once this time is over you can’t get it back, so stay in bed, snuggle up and love your babe. Diapers are okay, and a blanket can be used for warmth.
There is significant evidence that newborns who receive skin to skin contact with their mothers immediately after birth have an easier transition. They have great respiratory, temperature and glucose stability in addition to decreased stress. Skin to skin transfers biomes from mother to baby. These biomes protect the baby for life. After the umbilical cord has stopped pulsating and been cut, Dads can provide skin to skin contact until the mother is ready to breastfeed. Once breastfeeding babies lay naked or diapered between the mother’s breast. Initially, babies may play with the breast until ready to latch. Ideally, newborns breastfeed within the first hour after birth. Breast milk is made by your body specifically for your baby. Along with nutrition, breastmilk contains antibodies that protect your baby from illness.
For centuries giving birth at home was the norm. In the early 1900’s women started going to the hospital to give birth. Eventually, home birth declined from 50% in 1938 to fewer than 1% in 1955, with the interventions and the perceived ease of birth, women felt safer in hospitals.
A conflict between surgeons and midwives arose, as doctors began to assert that their modern scientific techniques were better for mothers and infants than midwifery. As doctors and medical associations pushed for a legal monopoly on obstetrical care, midwifery became outlawed or heavily regulated throughout the United States and Canada. An organized campaign accused midwives of being “incompetent and ignorant.”
Today midwives are recognized as highly trained, specialized birth professionals in “normal” birth. There are two kinds of midwives Certified Professional Midwives (CPM) and Certified Nurse Midwives (CNM). CPM’s attend home births while most CNM’s work in hospitals, some also attend homebirths.
Homebirth Midwifery care is based on the idea the pregnancy and birth are normal physiological process and provides prenatal care with individualized education, counseling, and continuous hands-on assistance during labor and delivery, in addition to, postpartum support while monitoring psychological and social wellbeing.
This type of care is contrast to the medical model that often promotes pregnancy and childbirth as potentially pathological and dangerous.
The midwifery model plays a significant role in Sweden and the Netherlands. In Sweden midwives administer 80 percent of prenatal care and more than 80 percent of family planning services. Swedish midwives attend all normal births in public hospitals and Swedish women have fewer interventions in hospitals than American women. The Dutch infant mortality rate in 1992 was the tenth-lowest rate in the world, at 6.3 deaths per thousand births, while the United States ranked twenty-second. Midwives in the Netherlands and Sweden owe a great deal of their success to supportive government policies.
In the USA, 27 states license or regulate direct-entry midwives, or certified professional midwife (CPM). In the other 23 states there are no licensing laws and practicing midwives can be arrested for practicing medicine without a license. Some of these states are in process of legalization. It is legal in all 50 states to hire a certified nurse midwife, or CNM, who are trained nurses, though most CNMs work in hospitals. Please see the chart listed below for further information.
Pregnancy and childbirth are unbelievably demanding on a woman’s system and scientific research has shown that the placenta is rich in the vitamins, minerals, and nutrients that your body needs to recover. The placenta has been used by women after birth throughout history and around the world. The purpose of placenta encapsulation is to reintroduce the beneficial vitamins, minerals, hormones, proteins and other nutrients back into your body following labor and birth.
Placenta encapsulation is a vital part of postpartum recovery. Encapsulation ensures preservation, allowing the placenta to be utilized while mom’s postpartum hormones gradually regulate themselves. It is the most non-invasive form of placenta consumption, so it’s usually the most accepted as it comes in easy to take capsulesEncapsulation involves dehydrating the raw placenta. The dried placenta is then ground into a powder and filled into capsules. Each placenta makes 100 to 250 capsules depending on the size. Capsules can be stored in the freezer and what you don’t use during postpartum can be used when you start menopause.
The benefits of placenta encapsulation are listed below:
Increase in energy
Enhanced breast milk supply
Balance in hormones
Lessen the “baby blues”
Decrease in postpartum depression
Shortens postpartum bleeding
Assists the return of uterus to pre-pregnancy state
Replenish depleted iron
It’s important to remember that, taking placenta capsules is never a replacement for rest and nutrition. You just had a baby; your body needs time to rest. Current research suggests women need a year to recover from childbirth. Eating, sleeping, and nursing should be your routine! If you have any questions, contact Raquel at Raquel@BlissfulMidwifery.com.
Prenatal care is the care you receive from your midwife during pregnancy. During prenatal care visits, your midwife will make sure you and the developing fetus are healthy and strong. These meetings are your chance to monitor your pregnancy’s progress, learn how to manage the discomforts of pregnancy, have any testing done you may need, learn about warning signs, and ask any questions.
The first prenatal care visit is generally the longest. You will be asked questions about your medical history, your partner’s, and your family’s. A complete physical exam is done. Your midwife will measure your height, weight, blood pressure, breathing, and pulse. You will discuss your diet, lifestyle, and habits then, sometimes suggestions are made that may help ensure a healthy pregnancy. One of the most significant things a woman can do is take folic acid every day to prevent birth defects.
Many pregnant women have questions about diet, exercise, and other lifestyle changes. Prenatal care visits are the perfect opportunity to discuss concerns with your midwife.
Many women choose to make lifestyle changes before they become pregnant. Eating a healthy diet consisting of lean proteins, fresh vegetables, and fruits with limited sugar and processed foods is valuable along with hydration and regular exercise. If you smoke, drink, or do drugs, quitting those activities, is important.
If you have a healthy, “low-risk” pregnancy you can expect the following prenatal care visits: every four to six week through the seventh month of pregnancy; every two to three weeks until the eight months; then every week from 36 weeks to birth.
Your midwife will monitor your pregnancy by testing your urine, checking your weight, blood pressure and swelling in the face, hands or feet. Your midwife will also examine the fundus to check the position of the fetus and measure the growth of uterus. Lastly, the midwife will listen to the fetal heartbeat.
Other assessments that are conducted include a prenatal panel, first and second-trimester screening, glucose screening and a Group B Streptococcus (GBS) swap. The prenatal panel is done early in pregnancy along with the first and second trimester screening. The glucose screening test is conducted between 24 and 28 to assess for gestational diabetes. GBS is a bacterium that can be carried in the genital, urinary, digestive and respiratory tract. The bacteria are normally found in 25% of all healthy adult women. The GBS swab is performed, between 35 and 37 weeks, by inserting a swab in the vagina and rectum. For more information, contact Raquel at http://www.BlissfulMidwifery.com.
Crying babies and exhaustion can trigger feelings of anxiety, self-doubt, and depression in parents. Learning how to quickly calm a crying baby may help parents get more rest, feel competent and decrease the risk of postpartum depression. Crying babies can trigger feelings of frustration, anger, and anxiety. People used to have more family support, but today, often time’s parents live farther from their families. If you need help please ask a friend or neighbor. If this can’t be done, place your baby in a safe place and leave until you are calm.
Many birth professionals call the time from birth to 3 months the fourth trimester which is an incredible period of discovery for you and your baby. Read more to find out how you can bond and soothe your baby during the first three months.
The Happiest Baby on the Block was a system developed by Harvey Karp to calm and soothe an upset baby. These strategies elicited the calming reflexes – nature’s automatic shut off switch for a crying baby. There are five easy steps.
The first step is swaddling, which is the cornerstone of calming down. The easiest way to learn to swaddle is to watch this short informational video or look at the pictures below. The next step is sidelying. While the baby below is not swaddled, you can see side laying position in the arms. This position is the baby’s “feel good” position. The third step is the baby’s sound of love and safety, the SHHHHHHH sound. While in utero, your baby heard the endless “whooshing” sound in your body. Once born, these rhythmic sounds will continue to soothe. There are many ways to reproduce these sounds. The dishwasher, washing machine or a white noise machine are all sounds you can try. Singing to your infant or playing music softly can also help calm her/him. Even talking to her/him softly can do the trick – your calm voice may reassure her/him and make her/him feel safe. The third step, swinging, comforts your baby because they were used to moving around with you when they were in the womb. These gentle, rhythmic movements may help soothe. Try taking your baby for a walk in a stroller/carrier, or use an infant swing, or rocking. The last step is sucking, which Dr. Karp considers the icing on the cake of soothing. After breastfeeding is established, Dr. Karp suggests introducing a pacifier for the first four months of your infant’s life to help calm her/him when she/he is upset.
It is important to note that swaddling will not stop your baby from crying if he/she is hungry or wet. However, if you miss the initial hunger cues, swaddling will calm your baby, enough for you to nurse. For more information check out http://www.happiestbaby.com or The Happiest Baby on the Block: The New Way to Calm Crying and Help Your Newborn Baby Sleep Longer by Harvey Karp.
Women who choose a VBAC have special needs and concerns that are social, psychological and clinical. A skilled Certified Professional Midwife uses all her talents- intellect, interpersonal communication, intuition and judgment to inform, nurture, protect and empower the women in her care.
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that the US cesarean rate slightly declined from 32.7 to 32.2% in 2014. Many women are now attempting vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) for their subsequent births. In 2014, Cesareanrates.com reported in that Wisconsin’s VBAC rate was 26.1%. Many Certified Professional Midwives (CPM) support VBAC’s as an option for women who have had previous cesarean deliveries. In Wisconsin, CPM’s can attend home birth vaginal birth after cesarean (HVBAC) after consulting with a CNM or physician regarding the individual VBAC client. The American Pregnancy Association suggests 90% of women who have undergone cesarean deliveries are candidates for VBAC. VBAC can be extremely therapeutic for women who have felt disappointed and/or angry about a prior birth experience.
First, why is the cesarean section rate so high? The most common obstetric procedure electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) has benefits and risks. Some suggest EFM is used to monitor the baby’s heart rate during labor so interventions can occur if the baby is in distress. EFM is also used so nurses can monitor multiple labors at the same time. Studies suggest EFM can lead to an increase in cesarean sections. It has been shown that women with continuous EFM were 1.7 times more likely to have a cesarean and likely to require pain medication when compared to women with intermittent auscultation during labor.
Often in the hospital women are told that as VBACs they can have a trial of labor (TOL) which implies that their body is not ultimately capable of a vaginal birth. With careful risk assessment, there is no reason to suggest that most women will not be successful.
Women who have had a low-transverse uterine incision have the highest rate of successful VBAC. As reported in Outcomes of Care regarding 16,924 Planned Home Births in the United States: the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics from, 2004 to 2009, report that 1100 women attempted a VBAC with a success rate of 87%. Why the high success rate? It’s simple, homebirth allows women to birth without interfering with the physiological process. The 87% success rate suggests that the idea once a c section, always a c section is not the case. This outdated philosophy is changing around the country.
There are three main obstetrical complications that can sometimes occur with scarred uteruses. The first is placenta previa, which is when the placenta covers the opening of the cervix. The second obstetric pathology is placenta accreta and percreta. These are abnormally implanted placentas, which invade the uterine wall. Placenta accreta and percreta is why it is important to verify the position of the placenta in second trimester with ultrasounds. The third antepartum complication is uterine rupture which can happen during any birth, even when no scar tissue is present, and results predominantly if Pitocin is used. Placenta previa, placenta accreta/precreta and uterine rupture require a cesarean section.
There are several contraindications to VBACs. These circumstances include: classical (vertical) scar on the uterus, T- or J-incision on the uterus, previous surgery such as myomectomy, which remove fibroids from the uterus, a truly contracted or deformed pelvis, or obstetrical complications, such as, placenta previa that preclude vaginal delivery.
CPM’s undertaking home VBAC need to learn the physical and psychological differences of VBACs. For instance, VBACs can have longer births. Midwives who accept VBAC’s need to have a VBAC practice protocol, engage in informed consent, request an ultrasound in the third trimester to determine the placement ensure it is not overlapping the scar. Lastly and as always, these CPMs need to have an emergency care plan completed in the event of transfer. VBAC protocols vary among midwives. An important factor is the reaction of the EMS, as well as the responsiveness of a back-up doctor and hospital to a midwife’s emergency call. Essentially a rural midwife working with a small hospital will have a different protocol than to urban midwife who is minutes from a trauma center. For more information, contact Raquel at http://www.BlissfulMidwifery.com.
Midwives and doulas both attend births, so they are the same, right? Well, actually, no, they are not. The roles of each profession are quite different. Some women wonder if they need one or the other; often, they choose to have a midwife or sometimes both.
Midwifes are skilled healthcare professionals who are experts in normal birth. Midwives use the Midwives Model of Care which supports that fact that pregnancy and birth are normal biological and physiological life processes. Midwives offer specific individualized care based on the needs of woman and babies. They provide medical advice and encourage informed consent. Midwives conduct prenatal appointments, obtain prenatal labs, administer hemorrhagic medications and suture tears if needed. Midwives statistically have significantly lower rates of interventions.
Midwives can either be a certified nurse midwife (CNM) or a certified professional midwife (CPM). Nurse midwives often work in hospitals, while certified professional midwives offer care and support in birth centers or provide homebirth services in the comfort of people’s homes. If the care required is outside the scope of midwifery, the women (and/or baby) is referred to another healthcare provider.
There are two types of doulas: birth and postpartum. Birth doulas offer advice, information, plus continuous emotional support and physical comfort, mainly to a mother, but also the father before, during and after childbirth. Birth doulas often facilitate communication between laboring moms, partners, and health care providers. A postpartum doula provides support and education on breastfeeding, recovery from birth, mother/baby bonding, infant soothing and newborn care. A postpartum doula supports families in those first days and weeks after their baby is born. Neither type of doula provides medical treatments.
Doulas are trained at a weekend course. They can be certified through DONA International or uncertified. Doulas attend births in homes, birth centers and hospitals. Postpartum doulas support families in the comfort of their homes.
Midwives and doulas support pregnant, laboring and postpartum woman in different ways. Basically, a midwife is a healthcare provider, while a doula is more like a childbirth coach. For more information, contact Raquel at http://www.BlissfulMidwifery.com.
There are several ways to define delayed cord clamping. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), delayed cord clamping is cutting the cord 1-3 minutes after birth, a practice the WHO recommends for all births. Home birth midwives practice delayed cord clamping where the umbilical cord is not clamped and cut until the cord has stopped pulsing or until after the placenta is delivered. Delayed cord clamping is known to improve maternal and infant outcomes.
Before birth, the fetus and placenta share a blood supply separate from the mother’s. The placenta and umbilical cord provides the baby with oxygen, nutrients plus clears waste. During fetal life, the placenta performs the role of lungs, kidneys, gut and liver for the fetus. This is why a significant portion of the baby’s total blood volume is in the placenta at any given time. The blood circulating in the placenta is not ‘extra’ blood or waste it belongs to the baby.
Immediately after birth, the placenta continues to provide essential oxygen and nutrients, as the placenta pulsates, placenta transfusion, a vital part of the birth process, transfers blood back to the baby. Placental transfusion provides red blood cells, plus stem and immune cells, in addition to, blood volume. Delayed cord clamping allows time for the placental transfusion, ensuring adequate oxygen levels and blood volume in the baby.
The benefits of delayed cord clamping for the baby include a healthy blood volume for the transition to life outside the womb, plus a full count of red blood cells, stem cells and immune cells. Newborns with delayed cord clamping have higher hemoglobin levels 24 to 48 post partum and less likely to be iron deficient three to six months after birth. For the mother, delayed clamping can prevent complications with delivering the placenta and prevent postpartum hemorrhage. Contact Raquel at http://www.BlissfulMidwifery.com.
Breastfeeding has several significant positive consequences for women’s health. Women who breastfeed have lower risks of breast and ovarian cancer, as well as type 2 diabetes. This blog entry is about the simple, yet effective ways to promote the breastfeeding relationship between mother and baby during the postpartum period and some simple breastfeeding techniques.
After birth, skin to skin contact between mother and baby facilitates bonding and promotes breastfeeding. Mothers and babies benefit from smelling each other, so there is no need for baby hats. Babies do not need baths either. If your baby has vernix caseosa, a white creamy substance, which protects their skin from the constant exposure to amniotic fluid, just rub it into the baby’s skin or into your skin. Lastly, it is important not to give your baby pacifiers. Babies can self sooth or nurse.
Midwives and doulas assist mothers in initiating breastfeeding within half-hour of birth. After that first latch, babies will fall into a deep sleep. Once they wake up, newborns nurse on demand every two to three hours. It is easiest to start nursing once you notice your baby getting fidgety or smacking their lips. If you miss these cues, you may need to calm your baby by placing your finger gently in their mouth until they are calm enough to nurse.
The classic nursing position is called the cradle hold. To use this position, cradle your baby’s head in the nook of your arm, and use pillows to stay in a straight line, belly to belly. With the other hand, cup your breast between your thumb and index finger and insert your nipple to the roof of your baby’s mouth. When your baby is latched correctly, your nipple and at least part, if not all, the areola-the dark area surrounding the nipple-is in your baby’s mouth. There are several other popular nursing positions that include the cross over hold, the football hold, and reclining position.
Many times when your baby needs to take a break or wants to switch sides, she/he will open and release your breast. If your baby does not release or is latched on incorrectly, gently slide your finger into the side of your baby’s mouth, go past your baby’s lips and between the gums. This will break the suction. Keep your finger between your baby’s gums until your nipple is removed.
Other good resources are Ina May’s Guide to Breastfeeding and The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding by the La Leche League International. For more support from other local breastfeeding moms, contact your local La Leche League International. For more information, contact me at BlissfulMidwifery.com.